Ushuaia is a city of Argentina in the Ushuaia department and capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and Islands of the South Atlantic. It was founded on October 12, 1884 by Augusto Lasserre and is located on the shores of the Beagle Channel surrounded by the Martial Mountain Range, in Ushuaia Bay. Besides being an administrative center, it is an industrial, port and tourist hub.
It is the only Argentine city on the western side of the Andes. It is also, according to the classification of the seas of the International Hydrographic Organization, the only Argentine city (and port) with coasts and waters belonging to the Pacific, although this is not openly acknowledged by the Argentine State, which formally considers the canal Beagle a bioceanic step, otherwise would contradict boundary treaties signed with Chile, which prevent it.
Ushuaia is known worldwide as "the southernmost city in the world". Being a tourist city, many people speak a language other than Spanish, standing out English, German and Portuguese, among others.
Ushuaia is at a distance (in a straight line) of 120 km from Río Grande in the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and the South Atlantic Islands, 251 km from Punta Arenas in the Region of Magallanes and the Chilean Antarctic, Chile, 359 Km of Río Gallegos, province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, 996 km from Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut, Argentina, 1150 km from Base Esperanza, Antarctica Argentina, 1523 km from Puerto Montt, Chile, 1765 km from Neuquen, 2382 km from Santiago de Chile and 4118 km from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
It is located at the coordinates: 54 ° 48'30 "S 68 ° 18'30" W, at 6 meters above sea level, and is located on the Bay of Ushuaia, surrounded by the Andes and Fueguinos. From the position of the rest of Argentina, it is the only city in the country that is accessed by crossing part of the Andes mountain range that runs along the southern edge of the Big Island of Tierra del Fuego. To access Ushuaia, two major foothills of the Andes Fueguinos must be raffled through National Route 3: the Alvear mountain range through the Garibaldi mountain pass, and the Sorondo-Montes Bridges mountain range through the Olivia river valley. For this reason, in Argentina it is considered the only trans-Andean city, although access to it does not have to cross the entire Andean chain.
In the city you will find the Devil's Lagoon, small and surrounded by forest, where ice skating is practiced during the winter season.
Outside the city there are a number of lakes and lagoons, all of glacier origin. The most important lake of Tierra del Fuego is Lake Fagnano. It is 30 km in a straight line north of Ushuaia, but to appreciate it is necessary to travel from Ushuaia about 90 km along the National Route N ° 3.
Ushuaia, with almost 57,000 inhabitants, is often called the "southernmost city in the world". Located further north than Rio Grande, is the Chilean city of Punta Arenas, with 116 005 inhabitants, has also had that name. It also associates with that slogan to the Chilean town of Puerto Williams, located somewhat further south than the first. However, the city's condition remains controversial, since for the 2002 census it had 1952 inhabitants, and, like almost all the international definitions of the term, is considered by Chile a town, since it does not own the 5000 Inhabitants who would officially categorize it as a city.